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Composting 101 – How to Make Compost

Our comprehensive guide makes it easy to start producing nature’s perfect soil amendment. Dig in!

Composting 101Welcome to COMPOSTING 101, Planet Natural’s go-to guide for turning what unsuspecting folks call yard waste into garden magic. Here you’ll find all you need to know about the best ingredients, containers, techniques, time-honored wisdom and common mistakes that will let you build the healthiest soil your plants will ever see.

3 Essential Elements for Perfect Compost

It’s time to let you in on a little secret: this type of soil building is the perfect lazy person’s gardening project. Unlike weeding or double-digging, which take lots of time and physical effort, a compost pile pretty much takes care of itself. Build it right, and it will transform your growing expectations.

1. Start with a container. We’re dealing with decomposing organic material, folks, so the structure doesn’t need to be fancy. You just need some sort of way to hold all of the ingredients together so the beneficial bacteria that break down the plant matter can heat up and work effectively.

compost bin can be as simple as a cage made from wire fencing or as sophisticated as a drum tumbler, complete with a specially-designed frame, venting system and handle for turning the contents. Select one based on how much plant matter (grass, leaves, weeds, stalks and stems from last year’s garden) you have at your disposal, how large your yard is, and how quickly you need to use the finished product.

Locate the pile in a sunny location so the pile has as much heat as possible. If it’s in the shade all day, decomposition will still happen, but it will be much slower, especially when freezing temps arrive in the fall.

2. Get the ingredient mix right. A low-maintenance pile has a combination of brown and green plant matter, plus some moisture to keep the good bacterial humming. Shredded newspaper, wood chips and dry leaves are ideal for the brown elements; kitchen waste and grass clippings are perfect for the green add-ins.

Skip meat, fish and dairy for outdoor bins because they tend to attract pests like mice, raccoons and dogs. If you can’t bear the thought of sending your leftovers to the landfill, there are clever systems that turn them into superfood for your plants.

If you’re using a simple containers, it’s best to start heaping the ingredients right on the ground, starting with chunky material like small branches or woody stems on the bottom for good airflow. Every time you add green material, add some brown as well to keep a good moisture balance and create air pockets.

If you need to jump-start your pile to get the process started, there are several great activators that are ready to go right out of the box.

3. Remember a few simple chores. Taking care of a compost pile is extremely basic, but a wee bit of care makes a huge difference. Add material regularly to give the happy bacteria some fresh food to consume and enough insulation to keep the process warm.

Turn the pile with a shovel or pitchfork every week or two to make sure that all of the materials are blended in and working together. After you’ve mixed things up, grab a handful to see if it’s slightly damp. Too little moisture will slow the decomposition process and too much will leave you with a slimy mess.

In a few months, your finished product should be a dark, crumbly soil that smells like fresh earth.

Avoid Common Mistakes

It’s hard to mess up compost, but we’re happy to offer a little direction so you get off to the best start.

Don’t start too small. The breakdown process needs a critical mass in order to do its job. However, certain bins work well for small amounts of material, so choose a product for your specific needs.

Keep things moist. It’s easy to walk away and forget that there’s an active process going on, so check the pile regularly, especially during hot, dry weather.

Don’t depend on one material. A combination of different textures and nutrients created by the disintegration of many different plants will give your plants a gourmet diet that helps create disease and pest resistance. Think about it – a huge clump of grass clippings just sticks together in a huge mat that hangs around for years. Add some leaves, stir, and natural forces like water, air and heat go to work quickly!

Don’t get overwhelmed. This isn’t rocket science, so jump in and try, even if you don’t have a clue. You’ll soon see what works and what doesn’t.


In Montana, where I live, the Holy Grail of gardeners is a homegrown tomato. The optimistic folks who try to outsmart the over-in-a-flash growing season, chilly summer nights, skimpy rainfall and marauding gophers or deer are courageous, indeed. I know a woman who tried every trick in the book to grow tomatoes she could brag about. She started them early, protected them from wind and cold, and stacked them up oh-so carefully.

No luck. They always turned out puny, mealy and tasteless.

Last year, she decided to focus on the soil instead. After reading up on the nutrients that plants need to thrive, she decided to mix organic compost into her garden and see what happened.

The experiment was a complete success! The tomatoes were so luscious and tempting that someone actually stole the crop out of the woman’s backyard. She was so miffed she actually filed a police report about it!

Compost is no guarantee that your vegetables (and flowers!) will inspire jealousy in your neighborhood, but it’s the fastest ticket to healthy, productive plants that reward your hard work with beautiful blooms and bountiful harvests. Taking the time to get smart about using your kitchen scraps, grass clippings and other plant material practically guarantees garden success!

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Eric Vinje founded Planet Natural with his father Wayne in 1991, originally running it as a grasshopper bait mail-order business out of a garage.

Eric is now retired, but is still a renowned gardener known for his expertise in composting, organic gardening and pest control, utilizing pesticide-free options, such as beneficial insects.

Eric believes when you do something good for the environment, the effects will benefit generations to come.

9 Responses to “Composting 101 – How to Make Compost”

  1. Benny Thomas on February 23rd, 2014 at 7:00 am #

    The theme is very interesting. We can make compost out of waste is a great idea everybody can follow. best wishes.

  2. John Price on February 23rd, 2014 at 2:31 pm #

    The author left out one thing: compost heaps generate a lot of methane, so don’t ever let a fire get close to it. A friend did, the compost heap caught on fire and destroyed the plastic container. Luckily, he didn’t have it close to something flammable.

  3. George on July 4th, 2014 at 11:45 am #

    Can moldy bread go in my compost?

    • E. Vinje on July 7th, 2014 at 6:09 am #

      Yes, not a problem! Molds are part of the decomposition process.

      • Lindsay on October 3rd, 2015 at 10:14 am #

        How about moldy vegetables and fruits?

  4. Lindsay on October 3rd, 2015 at 10:12 am #

    I am very new to composting and am trying to start up a composting system for a larger group of people. Lots of food waste, including meats and dairy plate scraps etc. I’m wondering the best option for this as there will be so much food waste and if I should try to eliminate the meats, dairy and fatty items?
    One major question I have is this, There are currently 2 bins full of what someone tried to call compost but was never taken care of properly… so it is moldy and sloppy and swarmed by flies, wasps and such. Can this be used, or does it essentially need to be disposed of in another way. If so, what could you suggest for disposing of such matter?

    • Pam on August 9th, 2016 at 10:40 am #

      ABSOLUTELY CAN BE USED!! Get some hay, shredded newspaper or dead leaves and mix it in, about half and half and let it go, if you want to add some dirt that’s also helpful, turn it about every week and it will be beautiful compost before you know it!

  5. Venu on October 23rd, 2015 at 4:27 am #

    I am new to composting. Can compost be a self-sufficient feed for plants? Or do I still need to feed them with things like bonemeal, peanut cake, neem cake, manure?

    • E. Vinje on October 23rd, 2015 at 5:43 am #

      Venu –

      The percentage of nutrients in compost is higher than that in the feedstocks it’s made from. This is because compost loses bulk as it decays. But its nutrient content remains constant. It’s as though the compost heap shrinks around an unchanging core of nutrients. This is true of heaps made in composters with lids. However, a compost pile that’s open to the weather will lose some of the more soluble nutrients to leaching. Nitrogen is especially vulnerable.

      Despite this concentrating factor, and the fact that compost contributes important levels of micronutrients, compost does not contain high enough levels of the primary nutrients to qualify as a fertilizer.

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