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Endive: What is It, How Is It Grown, And How to Cook It

Endive on a basket

Endive, an elegant leafy vegetable, is a member of the chicory family, which also includes radicchio, escarole, and curly endive.

Originally from Europe, specifically Belgium, it is now available year-round in many parts of the world. Its distinctive leaves, ranging from pale yellow to white and red, add a vibrant touch to any salad or side dish.

Endive is a cool-season crop, suitable for both spring and fall planting. It requires well-drained, fertile soil with plenty of organic matter. The plant prefers full sun but can tolerate light shade.

Its unique growing process, which involves a two-step procedure to produce the characteristic compact heads, makes it a somewhat challenging but rewarding vegetable to cultivate.

Plus, this vegetable is not only pleasing to the eye but also packed with nutrients. It is a great source of vitamins, folates, calcium, and potassium.

The bitter flavor of endive can be balanced with other ingredients such as citrus, cheese, and bacon, making it a versatile ingredient in various dishes.

As a master gardener, I’ll share everything you need to know about Endive in this article, including growing tips to help you grow them at home.

Field of endive

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Botanical Name: Cichorium endivia

Common Name: Endive

Family: Chicory family

Plant Type: Annual

Hardiness Zones: 4 – 7 (USDA)

Sun Exposure: Full sun to part shade

Soil Type: Well-drained, fertile soil

Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.5

Bloom Time: Late summer to early fall

Flower Color: Blue

Native Area: Europe

What is an Endive?

Endive is a leafy vegetable that belongs to the chicory family, which also includes plants like radicchio, curly endive, and escarole.

It is a versatile vegetable that can be used in a variety of dishes. It can be eaten raw in salads, cooked as a side dish, or used in dips.

Its slightly bitter flavor pairs well with rich ingredients like cheese, bacon, and walnuts, and it can also be balanced with the sweetness of citrus or the earthy flavor of mushrooms.

Endive on a wooden chopping board

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Apart from its unique flavor, endive is also a nutritious vegetable. It’s a good source of vitamins, particularly folates, and minerals like potassium and calcium.

Furthermore, endive is available year-round, making it a great addition to any meal, regardless of the season.

What are the Different Types of Endive?

There are several types of endive, each with unique characteristics and flavors.

  • Belgian Endive: The first and perhaps most well-known is the Belgian Endive. This vegetable is characterized by its tightly packed, pale yellow leaves. Its distinctive bitter flavor makes it a great addition to salads or as a side dish when cooked. Belgian endive is also commonly used in Belgium for grilling or pairing with cheese and walnuts for a unique appetizer.
Raw Belgian endive on a table

Belgian Endive – Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

  • Curly Endive: Curly Endive, or frisée, is another variety. It features frill leaves with a slightly bitter flavor. The outer leaves are often green, while the inner leaves tend to be white or pale yellow. This endive is a favorite in salads, particularly when paired with bacon, cheese, and a citrus dressing to balance its bitterness.
Curly endive isolated on a white background

Curly Endive – Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

  • Broad Leaf Endive: Escarole, also known as broad leaf endive, has broad, slightly curled leaves with a less bitter flavor compared to its counterparts. This vegetable is often used in soups and stews, but it also works well in salads or as a side dish.
Closeup shot of a broad leaf endive

Broad Leaf Endive – Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Each of these endive types offers a unique flavor profile and texture, making them a versatile ingredient in various recipes.

How is Endive Grown?

Endive is cultivated in two main types: Belgian endive and curly endive, also known as frisée. A third variety, escarole, also exists, which is characterized by broad leaf structures and less bitter flavor.

Belgian endive, known for its pale yellow leaves and white leaves, is grown in a two-step process. The first step involves planting chicory root in the field. After harvesting, these roots are stored in cold storage to mimic winter conditions.

Following this, they are moved to a dark, humid place where the endive heads sprout from the root. This process results in the characteristic tightly packed, elongated head of Belgian endive.

On the other hand, curly endive and escarole are grown much like any other salad green. They are direct-seeded into the garden and require full sun and well-drained soil.

Growing endive plants on soil

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

What Does Endive Taste Like?

Endive is known for its distinct bitter flavor. Originating from Belgium and other parts of Europe, it’s a popular ingredient in salads and side dishes, offering a unique crunch that pairs well with a variety of foods.

The flavor of endive can vary slightly depending on the specific variety. For instance, Belgian endive, which is grown in complete darkness to maintain its pale color, has a delicate, slightly sweet yet bitter flavor.

Curly endive, also known as frisee, has fringed and lacy leaves with a robust, peppery bite.

When raw, endive leaves offer a crisp texture and a clean, slightly bitter flavor. As they are cooked, their flavor tends to mellow out, becoming more nutty and less bitter.

The inner leaves are generally milder than the outer ones, which can be more robust in flavor.

Endive with a knife on a wooden table

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Endive Plant Care

Growing endive plants can enrich your gardening experience, as they require meticulous attention.

Loved for their crisp texture and delicate flavor, they require well-draining soil to prevent root rot.

It is essential to water them regularly but avoid overwatering as it could lead to waterlogging. Maintain optimal growth by ensuring they get ample sunlight, but avoid midday sun as it might cause leaf burn.

A balanced fertilizer encourages efficient growth, but a high nitrogen variant can boost their leafy growth. Regularly inspecting for pests, and promptly treating them can ensure a healthy endive yield.

Remember, patience is key for this winter vegetable, as they can take some time to mature fully.


Endive thrives with full exposure to sunlight for at least 5-6 hours daily.

However, it also tolerates partial shade, especially when weather conditions become excessively hot. A south or west-facing garden’s location is ideal for it to flourish.

Direct sunlight promotes healthy growth, contributing to the rich flavor and lush, leafy appearance of this gritty plant.

During the hottest part of the summer, a slight shade can prevent any potential damage to the plant. A well-balanced mix of light and shade ensures a flourishing endive garden.

Field of endive under full sunlight

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.


Endive thrive best in well-draining, fertile soil that has a neutral pH balance; however, they can tolerate slightly alkaline soil.

Preparation should include the incorporation of organic matter or compost to boost soil fertility. The optimum soil texture should be sandy, silty or loamy, as these promote good water passage, which is essential for endive growth.

Since the endive has relatively shallow roots, a loose, friable topsoil is ideal, ensuring the roots can easily spread and gain nutrients.

The soil temperature should also be kept cool as endives are a cool-season crop.


Endives are thirsty plants that require consistent watering to flourish. While they can tolerate short dry periods, they prefer well-drained soil that’s kept moderately moist.

The key is to avoid overwatering, which can cause root rot and invite pest or disease problems. Instead of following a rigid watering schedule, check the soil regularly and only water when the top inch feels dry.

During the hot and dry summer months you may need to increase the frequency of watering to keep the endives adequately hydrated.

Regular deep watering will also help in developing a healthy root system, resulting in a more robust endive plant.

Seedlings of endive on a plastic pot

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Temperature and Humidity

Endive thrives best in cooler temperatures, approximately between 50 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. It’s crucial to provide such a controlled climate for the mature plant to foster optimum growth.

However, it’s also worth noting that during the germination phase, slightly warmer temperatures around 75 to 85 degrees are beneficial. Fluctuations and extremes in temperature can stress the plant and halt its growth cycle.

Meanwhile, regarding humidity, endive prefers a moderately high level. Moisture in the atmosphere helps the plant maintain its exquisite leaf vigor and prevents it from wilting.

Periodically misting the plant is often recommended to promote high humidity especially in dryer conditions.


Endive is a winter-hardy plant that thrives best with the appropriate application of fertilizer. These leafy greens have moderate fertilizer requirements, with a preference for a well-balanced N-P-K (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium) composition.

For healthier growth, incorporate a slow-release fertilizer into the soil when planting. Subsequent fertilization every 4 to 6 weeks during the growing season helps maintain verdancy and boost yield.

However, over-fertilization, particularly with nitrogen-rich formulas, should be avoided to prevent excessive foliar growth at the expense of the edible parts.

Remember, the aim is to nourish the plants with just enough nutrition to support growth, without encouraging the rapid development of non-productive leaves.

Endive vegetables on a garden

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

How Do You Store Endive?

It’s important to know how to store endive properly to maintain its quality and nutritional value.

Endive leaves can wilt or discolor if not stored correctly. The same goes for red endive, a variety that adds a splash of color and a slightly bitter flavor to salads and side dishes.

To store endive, first, remove any damaged or discolored leaves. Do not wash the endive until you’re ready to use it, as moisture can hasten spoilage.

Place the endive in a plastic bag and seal it, removing as much air as possible. Store the bag in the vegetable crisper drawer of your refrigerator. This method of cold storage can keep endive fresh for up to two weeks.

Endive on a basket

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Where to Buy Endive

Endive can be found in various locations depending on your preference for convenience, quality, and price.

  • Supermarkets and Grocery Stores: Most large supermarkets and grocery stores stock endive in their produce section. It’s usually found next to other salad greens. When purchasing, look for endive with crisp, fresh leaves and no signs of wilting or browning.
  • Farmers’ Markets: Farmers’ markets are an excellent place to buy fresh, locally grown endive. These markets often offer a wider variety of endive types, including curly endive (frisée) and Belgian endive, than supermarkets. Plus, you’ll be supporting local farmers.
  • Online Retailers: If you’re finding it difficult to source endive locally, consider looking online. Numerous online retailers offer fresh or packaged endive. Some even provide a delivery service, bringing the fresh produce right to your doorstep.
  • Garden Centers and Nurseries: For those interested in growing their own endive, garden centers and nurseries often sell endive seeds and seedlings. This option allows you to cultivate your own crop, ensuring you have a fresh supply of endive right in your backyard.
Woman on a market choosing vegetables

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

How to Cook with Endive?

Endive, a leafy vegetable belonging to the chicory family, is a versatile ingredient in the kitchen due to its unique bitter flavor and crisp texture. It can be used in a variety of dishes, from salads to soups, and even as a garnish. Here are some tips on how to cook with endive.

Firstly, it is important to clean the endive thoroughly before cooking. Rinse the leaves under cold running water and pat them dry with a clean kitchen towel.

Trim off the base of the endive and separate the leaves if you are planning to use them individually.

Endive can be enjoyed raw in salads. Its slightly bitter flavor pairs well with sweet and tangy dressings, and it adds a nice crunch to the salad.

You can also use endive leaves as a base for appetizers, filling them with ingredients like goat cheese, nuts, and fruits.

Salad with endive and other vegetables

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

If you prefer cooked endive, it can be braised, grilled, or roasted. When braising endive, cut the heads in half lengthwise and cook them in a bit of butter and broth until they are tender.

This method helps to mellow out the bitterness and brings out a slight sweetness in the endive. Grilling endive is another excellent cooking method.

Simply brush the halves with olive oil, season with salt and pepper, and grill until charred and tender.

Roasting endive in the oven with a drizzle of olive oil and a sprinkle of salt and pepper is another delicious way to prepare this vegetable.

Endive can also be used in stir-fries and soups. Add it towards the end of the cooking process to maintain some of its crunchiness.


Other Vegetable Guides from Planet Natural:

12 Flowers To Plant With Your Vegetables – Companion Plants

How to Grow an Indoor Vegetable Garden: A Beginner’s Guide

Growing the Most Cost-Effective Vegetables