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How to Grow and Care for Bird’s Nest Fern (Asplenium Nidus)

Bird’s nest fern isolated on green background

Bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium nidus) are epiphytic ferns that grow on the surface of other plants in their rainforest habitat. These ferns develop from a central rosette and have long, upright, bright green fronds. Bird’s nest ferns have smooth, lance-shaped fronds that occasionally develop gentle ripples with enough light, unlike some other ferns that grow feathery leaflets.

Bird’s nest ferns favor high humidity, moist, well-drained soil, and medium to bright indirect light. These ferns make excellent bathroom plants because they flourish in warm, humid conditions.

These plants are truly a captivating addition to any indoor garden. Their lush fronds and unique growth pattern make them a favorite among plant enthusiasts.

But taking care of these green gems can be daunting, especially if you’re new to the world of houseplants. Don’t worry, though! As a master gardener, I’m here to guide you. Let’s delve into the specifics of Bird’s Nest Fern care.

A huge bird’s nest fern in the garden

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Botanical Name: Asplenium nidus

Common Name: Bird’s nest fern, nest fern

Family: Aspleniaceae

Plant Type: Perennial, epiphyte (can also be grown as a houseplant)

Hardiness Zones: 10-12 (USDA)

Sun Exposure: Indirect light to moderate shade

Soil Type: Well-draining, rich, and humusy soil

Soil pH: Neutral to slightly acidic

Maturity: 2-5 years (when grown as a houseplant)

Bloom Time: Rarely blooms indoors; grown primarily for foliage

Flower Color: Insignificant; the fern is appreciated for its green fronds

Native Area: Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and Eastern Australia

Bird’s Nest Fern Plant Care

Despite their exotic appearance, Bird’s Nest Ferns are surprisingly easy to care for. They’re perfect for beginners looking to add a bit of the tropics to their living space. Let’s have a look at the critical aspects of caring for these fascinating plants – light, soil, water, temperature, humidity, and fertilizer.

Bird’s nest fern outside in sunlight

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.


Light plays a pivotal role in the health of a Bird’s Nest Fern. These plants are native to tropical rainforests, so they prefer indirect, filtered sunlight. In their natural habitat, they typically grow under the forest canopy, receiving a few dappled rays through the leaves above.

They thrive in medium to bright indirect light, which promotes healthy growth in these plants. Still, too much sunlight can scorch their delicate fronds. At the same time, although they can tolerate low indirect light, too little can stunt their growth. Therefore, to ensure your fern thrives, the light conditions should be just right.

One way to provide the perfect lighting for your Bird’s Nest Fern is by placing it near a north-facing window. This will allow for a gentle, diffused light that mimics the conditions of its natural habitat. Alternatively, you can also use sheer curtains or blinds to filter the sunlight if your fern is placed near a window that receives direct sunlight.


Soil is another crucial aspect of Bird’s Nest Fern care. In the wild, these plants grow on trees, absorbing water and nutrients from their surroundings. So, draining and aerated soil is ideal for them when potted. Generally, a mix of orchid bark, coarse perlite, and peat moss works well.

Bird’s nest fern in the garden amongst many plants

Photo Credit: Dreamstime.

Remember, the goal here is to emulate the fern’s natural environment. You can do this by ensuring that the roots remain fairly dry between watering sessions. This can be achieved by using a well-draining potting mix and a pot with drainage holes at the bottom.

Additionally, it’s important to note that Bird’s Nest Ferns are epiphytic plants, meaning they can also be mounted on a piece of wood or bark instead of being potted in soil. This method allows for even better air circulation around the roots and can add an interesting visual element to your plant display.


Water is like lifeblood to these ferns. They need a fair amount of it, but be careful not to overwater your plant. Ideally, the soil should be kept slightly moist, not soggy. Overwatering not only leads to root rot but also encourages pests and plant diseases.

Aim to water every 1-2 weeks after the soil has dried half way down. Expect to water more often in brighter light and less often in lower light.

close up of Bird’s nest fern with droplets of water on leaves

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

One way to ensure proper watering is by checking the top inch of the soil. If it feels dry to the touch, it’s time to water your Bird’s Nest Fern. However, if it feels damp, it’s best to hold off on watering for a few more days. Remember, it’s always better to underwater than to overwater.

Use room temperature water, as cold water might shock the plant. And remember to water directly into the pot, not in the center of the plant, to prevent stagnant water, which can lead to fungal growth. You can also consider using a spray bottle to mist the fronds of your fern, providing an extra boost of humidity.

Temperature and Humidity

Being true to their tropical origin, Bird’s Nest Ferns love warm and humid environments. They thrive in temperatures between 70–90 degrees Fahrenheit. Anything below 60 degrees Fahrenheit can stunt their growth and cause damage.

If you live in a region with low humidity, you may need to take extra steps to create a suitable environment for your fern. One option is to use a humidifier, which will increase the moisture levels in the air. Another method is to place your fern on a tray filled with pebbles and water. As the water evaporates, it will create a humid microclimate around the plant.

Additionally, grouping your fern with other plants can also help create a more humid environment. The collective transpiration of the plants will increase the humidity levels in the surrounding area.


Vibrant green bird’s nest fern growing in a pot

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Proper fertilization also contributes to the vibrant growth of these ferns. Fertilize your plant every two to three weeks during the growing season with a balanced houseplant fertilizer. Always remember to dilute the fertilizer to half its strength to prevent the plant from burning.

When applying the fertilizer, make sure to distribute it evenly around the base of the plant, avoiding direct contact with the fronds. This will prevent any potential damage to the delicate foliage.

Furthermore, it’s important to give your Bird’s Nest Fern a break from fertilization during the winter months. This is their natural resting period, and they require less nutrients during this time. Resume regular fertilization in the spring when the plant starts actively growing again.

Types of Bird’s Nest Fern

When it comes to the world of ferns, the Bird’s Nest Fern is a captivating choice for any plant enthusiast. With its lush, vibrant fronds and unique growth habit, this fern has captured the hearts of many. But did you know that there are several types of Bird’s Nest Fern, each enticingly unique and engaging?

Crispy Wave: One popular variety is the ‘Crispy Wave’ Bird’s Nest Fern. As the name suggests, its fronds have a wavy appearance, adding a touch of whimsy to your indoor or outdoor space. The ‘Crispy Wave’ variety is known for its resilience, making it an excellent choice for both beginner and experienced gardeners.

Crispy Wave Bird’s Nest Fern on window sill

Crispy Wave – Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Leslie: ‘Leslie’ Bird’s Nest Fern is another variety that stands out with its striking appearance. Its fronds have a distinctive crinkled texture, resembling delicate lace. This fern adds an elegant touch to any room or garden and is sure to be a conversation starter among plant enthusiasts.

Top view of Leslie Bird’s Nest Fern with white background

Leslie – Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Emerald Vase Fern: For those who prefer a more classic look, the ‘Emerald Vase Fern’ is an excellent option. With its upright growth habit and deep green fronds, this variety exudes elegance and sophistication. The ‘Emerald Vase Fern’ is a versatile plant that can be showcased as a centerpiece or used to add a touch of greenery to a shaded corner.

Regardless of the type you choose, Bird’s Nest Ferns all share the same caring parameters. They thrive in bright, indirect light and prefer well-draining soil to prevent root rot. Regular watering and misting will keep their fronds lush and vibrant. So rest assured, no matter what type of Bird’s Nest Fern you choose, you’ll have a stunning fern to enhance your green space.

How to Propagate Bird’s Nest Fern

Propagation of these plants is relatively straightforward. Birds Nest Ferns reproduce through spores found on the underside of the fronds. If you have a mature fern, you can collect these spores to grow a new plant.

When it comes to collecting spores, it’s important to wait until the fronds have fully developed. This ensures that the spores are mature and ready for propagation. Gently run your hand along the underside of the fronds, feeling for a powdery texture. This powder is made up of the spores. Carefully collect the spores by gently tapping the fronds over a clean surface, such as a piece of paper or a small container. The spores will fall off and can be used to grow new plants.

Once you have collected the spores, it’s time to prepare the growing medium. Birds Nest Ferns prefer a well-draining soil mix that retains moisture. A combination of peat moss, perlite, and orchid bark works well. Fill a small pot or tray with the soil mix, making sure it’s moist but not waterlogged.

Now it’s time to sow the spores. Sprinkle the collected spores evenly over the surface of the soil. Avoid overcrowding the spores as this can hinder their growth. Gently press the spores into the soil, ensuring good contact for germination.

After sowing the spores, cover the pot or tray with a clear plastic bag or a plastic dome to create a mini greenhouse effect. This helps to maintain humidity levels and create a favorable environment for germination. Place the pot or tray in a warm and bright location, but avoid direct sunlight as it can be too harsh for the delicate spores.

It’s important to keep the soil consistently moist during the germination process. Mist the soil with water whenever it starts to dry out, but be careful not to overwater as this can lead to fungal issues. Patience is key during this stage, as germination can take several weeks to a few months.

Once the spores have germinated and small ferns have started to grow, you can remove the plastic cover. At this point, it’s important to provide the young plants with proper care. Place them in a bright location with indirect sunlight and maintain a consistent level of moisture in the soil.

Rows of bird’s nest fern seedlings

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

Alternatively, a mature plant can be divided to produce more plants. It’s best to time propagation with repotting as it’s less stressful on the plant. When dividing a mature Birds Nest Fern, carefully remove it from its pot and gently separate the root ball into smaller sections. Each section should have a good amount of roots and fronds. Plant these divisions in separate pots, making sure to use a well-draining soil mix. Water the newly divided plants thoroughly and place them in a shaded area for a few weeks to allow them to recover from the division process.

As the new plants grow, provide them with regular care and maintenance. Keep the soil moist but not waterlogged, and provide them with a humid environment by misting the fronds regularly or placing a tray of water nearby. With time and proper care, you’ll have a beautiful collection of Birds Nest Ferns to enjoy.

Potting and Repotting Bird’s Nest Fern

Potting these ferns is straightforward. Choose a pot with ample drainage and fill it with the recommended soil mix. Create a depression to place the plant, then cover the roots with soil. Your fern should sit level with the top of the pot.

Bird’s nest fern in a coconut pot with sky in background

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

When selecting a pot for your Bird’s Nest Fern, it’s important to consider its size and material. A pot with ample drainage holes is crucial to prevent waterlogging, which can lead to root rot. Additionally, choosing a pot made of breathable material, such as terracotta, allows for better airflow to the roots.

The recommended soil mix for Bird’s Nest Fern consists of equal parts peat moss, perlite, and orchid bark. This combination provides excellent drainage while retaining enough moisture for the fern’s roots. Avoid using regular potting soil, as it tends to hold too much water and can cause the roots to rot.

When potting the fern, gently loosen the roots and remove any dead or damaged fronds. This helps promote healthy growth and prevents the spread of diseases. Create a shallow depression in the center of the pot, ensuring it is wide enough to accommodate the spread of the fern’s roots.

Next, carefully place the fern in the depression, making sure the roots are spread out evenly. Add the prepared soil mix, gradually filling the pot while gently pressing it down to eliminate any air pockets. Be cautious not to bury the fern’s crown, as it can lead to crown rot

As your fern grows, repotting becomes necessary to provide it with fresh nutrients and ample space for root development. On average, it’s good to repot every two years. However, if you notice the roots becoming tightly bound or the plant showing signs of stress, such as stunted growth or yellowing fronds, repotting may be required sooner.

The ideal time to repot your Bird’s Nest Fern is in the spring or early summer when the plant is in its active growth phase. During this time, the fern is more resilient and can handle the stress of transplantation better. Avoid repotting during the winter months when the plant is dormant, as it may struggle to recover from the disturbance.

Bird’s nest in a pot in sunshine

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

When repotting, follow the same steps as potting, ensuring the new pot is slightly larger than the previous one. Gently remove the fern from its current pot, being careful not to damage the roots. Loosen the roots and remove any dead or decaying material. Place the fern in the new pot, ensuring it is centered, and fill the surrounding space with fresh soil mix.

After repotting, water the fern thoroughly to help settle the soil and encourage root establishment. Keep the plant in a shaded area for a few days to allow it to recover from the transplant shock. Resume regular care and maintenance, providing adequate light, humidity, and watering to support the fern’s growth.

Common Pests and Plant Diseases for Bird’s Nest Fern

When it comes to caring for your Bird’s Nest Fern, it’s important to be aware of the potential pests and diseases that can affect its health. By understanding these issues and taking proactive measures, you can ensure that your fern remains vibrant and beautiful.

One common pest that can trouble Bird’s Nest Ferns is scale insects. These tiny pests attach themselves to the leaves and stems of the plant, sucking out its sap and causing damage. If left untreated, scale insects can weaken the fern and hinder its growth. Regular monitoring of your fern’s foliage is crucial in order to detect and manage these critters before they become a major problem.

Another pest that can infest Bird’s Nest Ferns is the mealybug. These small, soft-bodied insects are covered in a white, powdery substance and can quickly multiply if not addressed. Mealybugs feed on the plant’s sap, weakening it and causing stunted growth. To prevent a mealybug infestation, it’s important to regularly inspect your fern’s leaves and stems, paying close attention to the undersides where these pests often hide.

Spider mites are yet another pest that can wreak havoc on your Bird’s Nest Fern. These tiny arachnids thrive in dry conditions and can cause extensive damage to the plant by piercing its cells and sucking out the contents. Signs of a spider mite infestation include yellowing leaves, webbing, and overall decline in the fern’s health. To prevent these pests, it’s important to maintain a humid environment around your fern and regularly mist its leaves.

Brown spots of disease in a leaf of bird’s nest fern isolated in a white background

Photo Credit: Shutterstock.

While pests can be a nuisance, plant diseases can also pose a threat to the health of your Bird’s Nest Fern. Fungus gnats, for example, are small flies that lay their eggs in the soil. The larvae feed on the plant’s roots, leading to root rot and potentially killing the fern. To prevent fungus gnats, it’s important to avoid overwatering your fern and ensure that the soil has proper drainage.

Speaking of root rot, this is a common disease that can affect Bird’s Nest Ferns if they are overwatered or if the soil doesn’t drain well. Root rot occurs when the roots are constantly sitting in water, leading to the development of harmful fungi that attack the plant’s roots. To prevent root rot, it’s important to water your fern sparingly and allow the soil to dry out slightly between waterings.

In conclusion, taking the time to understand and address the potential pests and diseases that can affect your Bird’s Nest Fern is essential in maintaining its health and beauty. By regularly monitoring your fern, providing the right conditions, and taking prompt action when issues arise, you can enjoy a thriving fern that adds a touch of nature to your home.


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