While most of the GMO attention these days is focused on the upcoming vote on California’s “Right To Know” initiative, another GMO controversy has boiled to the surface, this time with apples. Okanagan Specialty Fruits corporation has developed a genetically modified apple — known as the “Arctic Apple” — that does not brown, or at least doesn’t brown as quickly, when exposed to the air. The fruits are also not as susceptible to bruising, a problem that results in apples being refused by buyers at both the distribution and consumer levels. The controversy has spread across British Columbia’s apple growing regions and now, with articles in The New York Times and other publications, is gaining more focus in America.
The Arctic apple, so far developed as Granny Smiths and Golden Delicious (Galas and Fujis are on the way), contains a synthetic gene that sharply reduces production of polyphenol oxidase, an enzyme responsible for the browning. The introduced gene is taken from the apple itself and then inhibits the production of genes that result in the browning agents.
The arguments for and against the genetically-modified apples are familiar to those following the GMO issue. They include both sides of economic arguments (growers of traditional apples say Arctic apples will drive down the price of their product), health issues (the apple will be among the the first GMO products, like GMO papayas, consumed without processing; consumers will bite directly into it; its producers say the apple has no nutritional differences) and dangers to established growers if the genetic apples cross-breed with traditional apples. (Click on the links above for more detailed discussions of these issues.) Do we really need to go to such gene-tampering lengths? The answer is obvious to any parent who’s packed a school lunch containing apple slices splashed with a little lemon juice. Some local entities — and some large, including the British Columbia Fruit Growers Association — have come out against the GMO apple.
The one argument against the apples that seems unquestionable involves the dangers it provides to organic growers. If DNA from the genetically-modified apple cross breeds with their non-GMO crops, private growers will lose the genetic purity they seek and commercial growers would lose their organic certification. Advocates of the Arctic apple say this is unlikely because sticky apple pollen usually isn’t carried far by the wind. This answer of course, disregards other pollination means. Have the champions of the Arctic apple never heard of bees?
The United States Department of Agriculture has just opened the comments period regarding the genetically-modified apples to the public. You can find the rules regarding comments, and the Okanagan Specialty Fruits company’s application for approval, through this web-posted document (PDF). Comments will be accepted through September 10.
Eric Vinje founded Planet Natural with his father Wayne in 1991, originally running it as a grasshopper bait mail-order business out of a garage.
Eric is now retired, but is still a renowned gardener known for his expertise in composting, organic gardening and pest control, utilizing pesticide-free options, such as beneficial insects.
Eric believes when you do something good for the environment, the effects will benefit generations to come.
4 Responses to “One Bad (GMO) Apple”
Genetically modified seeds have beocme even a bigger threat than pesticides because they allow the farmers to use even more chemicals than ever! Study after study show that not only do genetically modified seeds, promoted by Monsanto and other big agricultural corporations, make us sick, causing liver and kidney failure, (and I wonder if this is why we have a kidney stone epidemic?) they are likely the cause of the decline in our honey bees.
Well if you can’t sell them there, make sure you don’t send them here (Australia).
I wouldn’t worry too much about the bees cross pollinating them. Bees are almost extinct. The more we mess with the natural world, the worse it gets.
I have tasted this organic pollinated green apples and it does not taste naturally sweet but a bit acidic. I would not buy them to consume even though they look so fresh and green. I just hope long term consumption will not have adverse effect on the health of the consumer, especially to the kidneys.